Evolution of Computers

1450 B.C. Abacus – China

1600 A.D. Napier’s Bones

  • John Napier
  • Scottish Mathematician.
  • Bones were strips of ivory with numbers written on them.

1642 A.D. Adding Machines – France

  • Blaise Pascal
  • Scientist, Philosopher and Mathematician.
  • He only nineteen years old when he invented this machine.
  • Pascaline was the name of the machine and it worked with clockwise gears and levers.
  • The machine was capable of addition and subtraction only.
  • To honour him, programming language Pascal was named after him.

1692 A.D. Multiplying Machine – Germany

  • Gottfried von Leibniz
  • Improved upon Pascal’s machine and introduced a mechanism to carry out
    automatic multiplication.
  • He is best know for his work with Isaac Newton in developing a branch of mathematics which we know as calculus.
  • This device was capable of performing addition, subtraction,
    multiplication and division. Could perform square root function too although
    not always accurately.

1813 A.D. Difference Engine – England

  • Charles Babbage
  • An Englishman who was working on his doctorate, need to perform complex
    calculations within given time period.
  • Invented steam powered Difference Engine which could perform complex
    calculations and print them out as well.

Early 1800s Jacquard Loom – France

  • Joseph Marie Jacquard
  • He was a weaver who developed a programmable loom.
  • It used large cards with holes punched in them to control the pattern
    automatically.
  • Others adapted the punch cards as primary form of input and they were in
    use about 30 years ago.

1862 A.D. Arithrometer – France

  • Charles Xavier Thomas
  • Invented the first calculator with with commercial prospects.
  • Won a gold medal for this inventions at the International Exhibition in
    London.
  • His machine performed addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
    and square root functions accurately.

1863 A.D. Analytical Engine – England

  • Charles Babbage
  • Conceived of a mechanism which could carry out long sequence of
    calculations under automatic control.
  • Ability to store 1000, 50 digit numbers in one second and multiply 20
    digit numbers in three minutes.
  • A form of punched cards was to be used for inputting data.
  • Plans could not be materialized due to technological limitations of that
    time.
  • First person to conceive of the “Stored Program Concept“.
  • Recognized as “the father of computers“.
  • Analytical Engine was finally developed in 1991 and is on display at
    Charles Babbage Institute at Minnesota.
  • Was accompanied by Augusta Ada Byron
    • Daughter of famous poet Lord Byron.
    • Excellent Mathematician who contributed tremendously to Babbage’s
      work.
    • First female computer scientist and programmer.
    • Computer programming language Ada has been named in her honour.

1896 A.D. Punch Card Machine – USA

  • Dr. Hermann Hollerith
  • Used cards with holes punched in them to speed up the collation job of the American Census of 1880.
  • Holes were punched through cards to indicate presence of a particular criteria in a respondent.
  • Holes punched in the card enabled wire brushes in the machine touch a metal plate which carried charge.
  • Charge was transmitted to electric counters which incremented the numbers.
  • Founded Tabulating Machine Company in 1896.
  • In 1911, Tabulating Machine Company merged with two other companies to form Computing Tabulating Recording Company.
  • Marketing expert Thomas Watson Sr. led the company and the company had a great success.
  • In 1924, the name of the company was converted to International Business Machine Corporation.

1930s Turing Machine – England

  • Alan Turing
  • He was a mathematician who published a paper in late 1930s, describing capabilities and limitations of a hypothetical general purpose computing machine “Turing Machine”.
  • Also helped in developing Robinson, the British Computer that was used to decode the messages encrypted by German Enigma Machine.
  • In 1950, he published a book “Computer Machinery and Intelligence” which proposed the “Turing Test of Artificial Intelligence” which basically explains that the computer is capable of interacting with the user.

1939 – Atanasoff Berry Computer(ABC)

  • Professor John Atanasoff accompanied by graduate student named Clifford Berry.
  • Built a special purpose electronic computer which was capable of solving problems of equations.

1944 A.D. Mark-I

  • Dr. Howard Aiken

 

Note: The list is incomplete and will be updated.

Bill Gates speech: 11 rules your kids did not and will not learn in school

Bill Gates

Rule 1: Life is not fair – get used to it!

Rule 2: The world doesn’t care about your self-esteem. The world will expect you to accomplish something BEFORE you feel good about yourself.

Rule 3: You will NOT make $60,000 a year right out of high school. You won’t be a vice-president with a car phone until you earn both.

Rule 4: If you think your teacher is tough, wait till you get a boss.

Firefox 3.6.15

The Web is all about innovation, and Firefox sets the pace with dozens of new features to deliver a faster, more secure and customizable Web browsing experience for all.

User Experience. The enhancements to Firefox provide the best possible browsing experience on the Web. The new Firefox smart location bar, affectionately known as the “Awesome Bar,” learns as people use it, adapting to user preferences and offering better fitting matches over time.

Performance. Firefox is built on top of the powerful new Gecko platform, resulting in a safer, easier to use and more personal product.

Security. Firefox raises the bar for security. The new malware and phishing protection helps protect from viruses, worms, trojans and spyware to keep people safe on the Web.

Customization. Everyone uses the Web differently, and Firefox lets users customize their browser with more than 5,000 add-ons.

Google Chrome 11.0.686.3 Beta

Google Chrome is a browser that combines a minimal design with sophisticated technology to make the web faster, safer, and easier.

One box for everything

Type in the address bar and get suggestions for both search and web pages.

Thumbnails of your top sites

Access your favorite pages instantly with lightning speed from any new tab.

Incognito mode

Don’t want pages you visit to show up in your web history? Choose incognito mode for private browsing.

Safe browsing

Google Chrome warns you if you’re about to visit a suspected phishing, malware or otherwise unsafe website.

For information about alpha and developer builds, check out the Chrome dev channel here.

DC++ 0.782

DC++ is an open source client for Windows for the Direct Connect network. Direct Connect allows you to share files over the Internet without restrictions or limits. The client is completely free of advertisements and has a nice, easy to use interface. Firewall and router support is integrated and it is easy and convenient to use functionality like multi-hub connections, auto-connections and resuming of downloads.

DC++ offers these improvements over its predecessors:

  • Much more stable. DC++ wastes less memory, is faster, file size is smaller and long queue won’t freeze the whole program. Neo-Modus Direct Connect eats memory and resources.
  • You can connect to many hubs at same time and search for files from all of them with same search.
  • You can continue downloading the same file from other users if somebody leaves.
  • You can see timestamps in the chat. Chat won’t jump to end when you roll back old messages.
  • Bot messages wont popup new windows, you can also filter bot messages out.
  • No Ads.
  • Search is more versatile.
  • Hublist is downloadable from multiple servers/sources.